Senior Principal Research Scientist
Weather Modelling & Prediction Section

  • hans_huang@nea.gov.sg


Dr Xiang-Yu (Hans) Huang leads the Weather Modelling and Prediction Section in CCRS. He has extensive experience of data assimilation research, observation system design and assessment, and NWP system developments. He was the lead scientist of the HIRALM data assimilation system and the manager of the WRF data assimilation system. He is currently the MSS manager of SINGV – a multi-year project on the convective-scale Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modelling and data assimilation, in collaboration with UK Met Office.


    • 1984-1988
    • PhD at Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, Sweden
    • 1978-1982
    • BSc at Department of Geophysics, Peking University, China

Working Experience

    • 2014-present
    • Senior Principal Research Scientist, Centre for Climate Research Singapore, MSS
    • 2007-2014
    • Program Manager, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
    • 2007-2012
    • Director, Data Assimilation Testbed Center, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
    • 2005-2007
    • Project Scientist III, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
    • 2004-2005
    • Visiting Scientist, Mesoscale and Microscale Meteorology Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, USA
    • 1995-2004
    • Leader of the Data Assimilation group, Meteorological Research Division, Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark
    • 1992-2007
    • Senior Scientist, Meteorological Research Division, Danish Meteorological Institute, Denmark
    • 1988-1992
    • Research Fellow, Department of Meteorology, University of Stockholm, Sweden
    • 1984-1988
    • Teaching Assistant, Department of Meteorology, University of Stockholm, Sweden

Research Interests

  • Data assimilation techniques
  • Observing systems
  • Initialisation and noise control for NWP systems
  • Numerical methods
  • Moist convection and cloud parameterisation

Peng, W., Liang, X., Zhang, X., Huang, X.-Y., Lu, B., Fu, Q. 2017.

Application of physical filter initialization in 4DVar.

Mon. Wea. Rev., doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-16-0274.1 [in press]

Yu, H., Wang, H., Meng, Z., Mu, M., Huang, X.-Y., Zhang, X. 2017.

Forecast sensitivity to initial perturbation: Conditional non-linear optimal perturbations vs. the first singular vector and their model dependency.

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 34(1), 187-206, doi: 10.1175/JTECH-D-15-0183.1.

Wang, Y., Min, J., Chen, Y., Huang, X.-Y., Zeng, M., Li, X. 2017.

Improving precipitation forecast with hybrid 3DVar and time-lagged ensembles in a heavy rainfall event.

Atmospheric Research, 183, 1-16, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2016.07.026.

Yang, C., Liu, Z., Bresch, J., Rizvi, S.R.H., Huang, X.-Y., Min, J. 2016.

AMSR2 all-sky radiance assimilation and its impact on the analysis and forecast of Hurricane Sandy with a limited-area data assimilation system.

Tellus A, 68, 30917, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v68.30917.

Xing, J., Shi, J., Lei, Y., Huang, X.-Y., Min, J. 2016.

Evaluation of HY-2A scatterometer wind vectors using data from buoys, ERA-Interim and ASCAT during 2012-2014.

Remote Sensing, 2016, 8, 390, doi:10.3390/rs8050390.

Chen, Y., Xia, X., Min, J., Rizvi, S.R.H., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, Y., Zhang, R., Chen, X. 2016.

Balance characteristics of multivariate background error covariance for rainy and dry seasons and its impact on rainfall forecasts.

Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 128, 579-600, doi:10.1007/s00703-016-0434-4.

Shao, H., Derber, J., Huang, X.-Y., Hu, M., Newman, K., Stark, D., Lueken, M., Zhou, C., Nance, L., Kuo, Y.-H., and Brown, B. 2016.

Bridging Research to Operations Transitions: Status and Plans of Community GSI.

Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 97(8), 1427-1440, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-13-00245.1.

Wang, Y., Chen, Y., Gao, Y., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, H. 2016.

Impact of different ETKF covariance inflation schemes on WRFDA/hybrid assimilation and forecasting.

Plateau Meteorology, 35(2), 397-405, doi:10.7522/j.issn.1000-0534.2014.00147.

Schwartz, C., Liu, Z., Huang, X.-Y. 2015.

Sensitivity of limited-area hybrid variational-ensemble analyses and forecasts to ensemble perturbation resolution.

Mon. Wea. Rev., 143, 3454-3477, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-14-00259.1

Chen, Y., Wang, H., Min, J., Huang, X.-Y., Minnis, P., Zhang, R., Haggerty, J., Palikonda, R. 2015.

Variational assimilation of cloud liquid/ice water path and its impact on NWP.

J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 54,1809-1825, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-14-0243.1

Newman, K.M., Schwartz, C.S., Liu, Z., Shao, H., Huang, X.-Y. 2015.

Evaluating Forecast Impact of Assimilating Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) Radiances with a Regional Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation System.

Weather and Forecasting, 30, 964-983, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-14-00091.1

Gao, F., Huang, X.-Y., Jacobs, N., Wang, H. 2015.

Assimilation of wind speed and direction observations: results from real data experiments.

Tellus A, 67, 27132, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v67.27132

Hsiao, L.-F., Huang, X.-Y., Kuo, Y.-H., Chen, D.-S., Wang, H., Tsai, C.-C., Yeh, T.-C., Hong, J-S., Fong, C.-T., Lee, C.-S. 2015.

Blending of Global and Regional Analyses with a Spatial Filter: Application to Typhoon Prediction over the Western North Pacific Ocean.

Weather and Forecasting, 30, 754-770, doi:10.1175/WAF-D-14-00047.1.

Xu, D., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, H., Mizzi, A.P., Min, J. 2015.

Impact of assimilating AMSU-A radiances with the WRFDA ETKF/3DVAR hybrid system on the prediction of two typhoons (2012).

J. Meteor. Res., 29(1), 028-040, doi: 10.1007/s13351-014-4053-z.

Zhang, Xiaoyan, Wang, H., Huang, X.-Y., Gao, F., Jacobs, N.A. 2015.

Using adjoint-based forecast sensitivity method to evaluate TAMDAR data impacts on regional forecasts.

Advances in Meteorology, vol. 2015, Article ID 427616, 13 pages. doi:10.1155/2015/427616.

Xu, D., Auligne, T., Huang, X.-Y. 2015.

A validation of the multivariate and minimum residual method for cloud retrieval using radiance from multiple satellites.

Adv. Atmos. Sci., 32, 1-14, doi:10.1007/s00376-014-3258-5.

Huang, X.-Y., Zhang, X., Liu, Z., Auligne, T., Sun, J., Wang, H., Kavulich, M., Rizvi, S., Guo, Y.-R., Ban, J., Liu, J., Descombes, G., Lin, H.-C., Schwartz, C., Gao, F., Xu, D., Chen, S.-Y., Zhang, Y., Tong, W.-X., Vendrasco, E. 2014.

The 2014 WRFDA Overview.

15th WRF Users’ Workshop, Boulder, Colorado, 24-28 June 2013. Extended Abstract 1.2. [http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/workshops/WS2014/extended_abstracts]

Chiang, C.-H., Zhang, X., Fong, C.-T., Huang, X.-Y. 2014

The preliminary assessment of Four-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation (4DVAR) performance at Central Weather Bureau.

Meteorological Bulletin, 51(1), 55-80.

Chen, Y., Wang, Y., Min, J., Huang, X.-Y., Liu, Z., Pan, Y. 2014

A hybrid assimilation method with control variable perturbation and multi-physical parameterization.

Trans. Atmos. Sci., 37(6), 732-739. doi: 10.13878/j.cnki.dqkxxb.20130923007.

Zhang, X., Huang, X.-Y., Liu, J.,Poterjoy, J., Weng, Y., Zhang, F., Wang, H. 2014.

Development of an efficient regional four-dimensional variational data assimilation system for WRF.

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 2777-2794, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00076.1.

Wang, H., Huang, X.-Y., Sun, J., Xu, D., Zhang, M., Fan, S., Zhong, J. 2014.

Inhomogeneous background error modeling for WRF-Var using the NMC method.

J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 51, 2287-2309, DOI: 10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0281.1.

Zhang, X., Kuo, Y.-H., Chen, S.-Y., Huang, X.-Y., Hsiao, L.-F. 2014

Parallelization strategies for the GPS radio occultation data assimilation with a nonlocal operator.

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 31, 2008-2014, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-13-00195.1.

Wang, H., Huang, X.-Y., Liu, J., Xu, D. 2014.

A scale-dependent blending scheme for WRFDA: Impact on regional weather forecasting.

Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 1819-1828. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-1819-2014.

Xu, D., Huang, X.-Y., Liu, Z., Min, J. 2014.

Comparisons of Two Cloud Detection Schemes for Infrared Radiance Observations.

Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, 7(4), 358-363. doi: 10.3878/j.issn.1674-2834.14.0016.

Chen, Y., Zeng, L., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, H., Rizvi, S.R.H. 2014.

A study of latitude dependent background error covariance and its impact.

Journal of Tropical Meteorology, 30(4), 654-662. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1004-4965.2014.04.006.

Wang, H., Huang, X.-Y., Liu, J., Xu, D. 2014.

A scale-dependent blending scheme for WRFDA: Impact on regional weather forecasting.

Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 7, 2455-2482.

Gao, F., Childs, P.P., Huang, X.-Y., Jacobs, N.A., Min, J.Z. 2014.

A relocation-based initialization scheme to improve track-forecasting of tropical cyclones.

Adv. Atmos. Sci., 31, 27-36. doi:10.1007/s00376-013-2254-5.

Choi, Y., Lim, G-.H., Lee, D.-K., and Huang, X.-Y. 2014.

An adjoint sensitivity-based data assimilation method and its comparison with existing variational methods.

Tellus A, 66, 21584, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v66.21584.

Huang, X.-Y., Gao, F., Jacobs, N. and Wang, H. 2013.

Assimilation of wind speed and direction observations: a new formulation and results from idealized experiments.

Tellus A, 65, 19936, http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v65i0.19936.

Schwartz, C.S., Liu, Z., Huang, X.-Y., Kuo, Y.-H., Fong, C.-T. 2013.

Comparing limited-area 3DVAR and hybrid variational-ensemble data assimilation methods for typhoon track forecasts: Sensitivity to outer loops and vortex relocation.

Mon. Wea. Rev, 141, 4350-4372. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-13-00028.1.

Jung, B.-J., Kim, H. M., Auligne, T., Zhang, Xin, Zhang, Xiaoyan, and Huang, X.-Y. 2013.

Adjoint-derived observation impact using WRF in the western North Pacific.

Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 4080-4097. doi:10.1175/MWR-D-12-00197.1.

Xu, D., Liu, Z., Huang, X.-Y., Min, J., Wang, H. 2013.

Impact of assimilating IASI radiance observations on forecasts of two tropical cyclones.

Meteor. Atmos. Phys., 122, 1-18. doi:10.1007/s00703-013-0276-2.

Zhang, X., Huang, X.-Y., Pan, N. 2013.

Development of the upgraded tangent linear and adjoint of the weather research and forecasting (WRF) modeling system.

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 30, 1180-1188, doi:10.1175/JTECH-D-12-00213.1.

Wang, H., Sun, J., Zhang, X., Huang, X.-Y. and Auligne, T. 2013.

Radar data assimilation with WRF 4D-Var: Part I. System development and preliminary testing.

Mon. Wea. Rev., 141, 2224-2244. doi: 10.1175/MWR-D-12-00168.1.

Chen, Y., Rizvi, S.R.H., Huang, X.-Y., Min, J., and Zhang, X. 2013.

Balance characteristics of multivariate background error covariance and their impact on analyses and forecasts in Tropics and Arctic. Meteor.

Atmos. Phys., 121, 79-98. doi:10.1007/s00703-013-0251-y.

Wang, H., Huang, X.-Y. and Chen Y. 2013.

An observation system simulation experiment for the impact of MTG candidate infrared sounding mission no regional forecasts: system development and preliminary results.

ISRN Meteorology, vol. 2013, Article ID 971501, 18 pages. doi:10.1155/2013/971501.

Wang, H., Sun, J., Fan, S. and Huang, X.-Y. 2013.

Indirect assimilation of radar reflectivity with WRF 3D-Var and its impact on prediction of four summertime convective events.

J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 52, 889-902. doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-12-0120.1.

Barker, D., Huang, X.-Y., Liu, Z., Auligné, T., Zhang, Xin, Rugg, S., Ajjaji, R., Bourgeois, A., Bray, J., Chen, Y., Demirtas, M., Guo, Y.-R., Henderson, T., Huang, W., Lin, H.-C., Michalakes, J., Rizvi, S., Zhang, Xiaoyan, 2012.

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model’s Community Variational/Ensemble Data Assimilation System: WRFDA.

Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 93, 831-843. doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-11-00167.1.

Chen, M., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, W. 2012.

Difficulties in the implementation of the digital filter initialization in a high resolution numerical weather forecast model.

Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 70(1), 109-118.

Gao, F., Zhang, X., Jacobs, N., Huang, X.-Y., Zhang, Xin, Childs, P. 2012.

Estimation of TAMDAR Observational Error and Assimilation Experiments.

Weather and Forecasting, 27, No. 4, 856-877. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-11-00120.1.

Gustafsson, N., Huang, X.-Y., Yang, X., Mogensen, K.S., Lindskog, M., Vignes, O., Wilhelmsson, T., Thorsteinsson, S. 2012.

Four-dimensional variational data assimilation for a limited area model.

Tellus, 64A, 14985, DOI: 10.3402/tellusa.v64i0.14985.

Schwartz, C.S., Liu, Z., Chen, Y. and Huang, X.-Y. 2012.

Impact of assimilating microwave radiances with a limited-area ensemble data assimilation system on forecasts of typhoon Morakot. Weather and Forecasting, 27, 424-437. doi:10.1175/WAF-D-11-00033.1.

Wang, H. and Huang, X.-Y. 2012.

TAMDAR Observation Assimilation in WRF 3D-Var and its Impact on Hurricane Ike (2008) Forecast.

Atmospheric and Oceanic Science Letters, VOL. 5, NO. 3, 206-211.

Wang, H., Mu, M., Huang, X.-Y. 2011.

Application of Conditional Nonlinear Optimal Perturbation to Tropical Cyclone Adaptive Observation using the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model.

Tellus, 63A, 939-957. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0870.2011.00536.x.

Zhang, M., Zhang, F., Huang, X.-Y. and Zhang, X. 2011.

Inter-comparison of an ensemble Kalman filter with three- and four-dimensional variational data assimilation methods in a limited-area model over the month of June 2003.

Mon. Wea. Rev., 139, 566-572. doi:10.1175/2010MWR3610.1.

Lynch, P. and X.-Y. Huang. 2010.

Initialization. Chapter 9, in Data Assimilation: Making sense of observations, eds. W. Lahoz, B. Khattatov and R. Menard, Springer.

ISBN: 978-3-540-74702-4.

Huang, X.-Y. 2009.

The 2009 WRFDA overview.

WMO data assimilation symposium, Melbourne, Australia, 5-9 Oct 2009. [http://www.cawcr.gov.au/staff/pxs/wmoda5/ExtendedAbstracts/Huang.pdf]

Fan, S., Guo, Y.-R., Chen, M., Zhong, J., Chu, Y., Wang, W., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, Y., Kuo, Y.-H. 2009.

Application of WRF 3DVar to a high-resolution model over Beijing area.

Sciences in Cold and Arid Regions, 1(2), 135-142.

Huang, X.-Y., Q. Xiao, D. M. Barker, Xin Zhang, J. Michalakes, W. Huang, T. Henderson, J. Bray, Y. Chen, Z. Ma, J. Dudhia, Y. Guo, Xiaoyan Zhang, D.-J. Won, H.-C. Lin, Y.-H. Kuo, 2009.

Four-Dimensional Variational Data Assimilation for WRF: Formulation and Preliminary Results.

Mon. Wea. Rev., 137, 299-314. doi:10.1175/2008MWR2577.1.

Skamarock, W. C., J. B. Klemp, J. Dudhia, D. O. Gill, D. M. Barker, M. Duda, X.-Y. Huang, W. Wang and J. G. Powers, 2008.

A Description of the Advanced Research WRF Version 3.

NCAR Technical Note, NCAR/TN-475+STR. [http://www.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/ARW_v3.pdf]

Huang, Xiang-Yu, Hongli Wang, Yongsheng Chen, Xin Zhang, Stephen A. Tjemkes, Rolf Stuhlmann. 2008.

Benefit of the MTG candidate Infra-Red Sounding mission to regional forecast.

Report TN-4: Final results review. EUMETSAT project.

Fan, S., Guo, Y., Chen, M., Zhong, J. Chu, Y., Wang, W., Huang, X.-Y., Wang, Y, Kuo, Y.-H. 2008.

Application of WRF 3D-Var to a high resolution model over Beijing area.

Plateau Meteorology, 27, 1181-1188.

Huang, X.-Y., 2008.

Book review: “Dynamic Data Assimilation: A Least Square Approach.”

Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89, 1741.

Xiao, Q., Kuo, Y., Ma, Z., Huang, W., Huang, X., Zhang, X., Barker, D. M., Michalakes, J., 2008.

Development of the WRF adjoint modeling system and its application to the investigation of the May 2004 McMurdo Antarctica severe wind event.

Mon. Wea. Rev., 136, 3696-3713. doi:10.1175/2008MWR2235.1.

Chen, M. and Huang, X.-Y. 2006.

Digital Filter Initialization for MM5.

Mon. Wea. Rev., 134, 1222-1236.

Du, C.-L., Huang, X.-Y. and Yu X. 2005.

Applications of 4-dimentional variational data assimilation to the Lorenz system.

Meteorological Monthly, 31, 23-26.

Vedel, H. and Huang, X.-Y. 2004.

Impact of ground based GPS data on NWP forecasts.

J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan, 82, 459-472.

Vedel, H., Huang, X.-Y., Haase, J., Ge, M. and Calais, E. 2004.

Impact of GPS zenith tropospheric delay data on precipitation forecasts in Mediterranean France and Spain.

Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02102, doi:10.1029/2003GL017715.

Huang, X.-Y. and Lindskog, M. 2003.

Assimilating European wind profiler data with the HIRLAM variational data assimilation system.

HIRLAM Technical Report, 61, 29pp.

Huang, X.-Y., H. Vedel, N. Gustafsson, M. Ridal, A. Jupp, D. Offiler, J. Eyre, B. Navascues, J. Garcia-Moya, R. Ferretti, C. Faccani, G. Visconti, S. de Haan, J. de Vries, S. Barlag, H. Jarvinen, R. Eresmaa, O.F. dAndon, O. Lesne, W. Jiang, G. Elgered, J. Johansson, O. Kristansen, H.P. Kierulf, H.-P. Plag, F. Vespe, R. Pacione, A. Rius, E. Brockmann, J. Dousa, V. Filler, H. van der Marel, 2003:

TOUGH: Targeting optimal use of GPS humidity measurements in meteorology.

International Workshop on GPS Meteorology. Tsukuba, Japan, 14-17 Jan. 2003.

Huang, X.-Y., Yang X., Gustafsson, N., Mogensen, K. and Lindskog, M. 2002.

Four-dimensional variational data assimilation for a limited area model.

HIRLAM Technical Report, 57, 44pp.

Huang, X.-Y., Mogensen, K. and Yang, X. 2002.

First-Guess at the appropriate time: the HIRLAM implementation and experiments.

HIRLAM Workshop on Variational Data Assimilation and Remote Sensing, Workshop Report, 28-43.

Huang, X.-Y. and Yang, X. 2002.

A new implementation of digital filtering initialization schemes for HIRLAM.

HIRLAM Technical Report No. 53, 36 pp.

Sattler, K. and Huang, X.-Y. 2002.

Structure function characteristics for 2 meter temperature and relative humidity in different horizontal resolution.

Tellus 54A, 14-33.

Gustafsson, N., Berre, L., Hörnquist, S., Huang, X.-Y., Lindskog, M., Navascues, B., Mogensen, K.S., Thorsteinsson, S. 2001.

Three-dimensional variational data assimilation for a limited area model. Part I: General formulation and the background error constraint.

Tellus 53A, 425-446.

Lindskog, M., Gustafsson, N., Navascues, B., Mogensen, K.S., Huang, X.-Y., Yang, X., Andrae, U., Berre, L., Thorsteinsson, S., Rantakokko, J. 2001.

Three-dimensional variational data assimilation for a limited area model. Part II: Observation handling and assimilation experiments.

Tellus 53A, 447-468.

Vedel, H., Mogensen, K.S. and Huang, X.-Y. 2001.

Calculation of zenith delays from meteorological data, comparison of NWP model, radiosonde and GPS delays.

Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, 26, 497-502.

Huang, X.-Y. 2000.

Variational analysis using spatial filters.

Mon. Wea. Rev. 128, 2588-2600.

Amstrup, B. and Huang, X.-Y. 1999.

Impact of the additional FASTEX radiosonde observations on the HIRLAM data assimilation and forecasting system.

Q. J. R. Meteor. Soc. 125, 3359-3374.

Huang, X.-Y. 1999.

A generalization of using an adjoint model in intermittent data assimilation systems.

Mon. Wea. Rev. 127,766-787.

Mogensen, K. S. and Huang, X.-Y. 1998.

Variational parameter estimation with the Lorenz model.

HIRLAM Technical Report No. 33, 29 pp.

Yu, X.-D., Huang, X.-Y., Laursen, L., Rasmussen, E. 1997.

Application of the HIRLAM system in China – torrential rain forecast experiments in Yangtze river valley.

Q. J. Appl. Meteor., 8, 498-502.

Yu, X.-D., Huang, X.-Y., Laursen, L., Rasmussen, E. 1997.

On the sensitivity of precipitation forecasts to the moist physics and the horizontal resolution of numerical model.

Acta Meteorologica Sinica, 11, 432-445.

Huang, X.-Y., Gustafsson, N. and Källen, E. 1997.

Using an adjoint model to improve an optimum interpolation based data assimilation system.

Tellus 49A, 161-176.

Gustafsson, N. and Huang, X.-Y. 1996.

Sensitivity experiments with the spectral HIRLAM and its adjoint.

Tellus 48A, 501-517.

Huang, X.-Y. 1996.

Initialization of cloud water content in a data assimilation system.

Mon. Wea. Rev. 124, 478-486.

Huang, X.-Y., Cederskov, A., and Källen, E. 1994.

A comparison between digital filtering initialization and nonlinear normal mode initialization in a data assimilation system.

Mon. Wea. Rev. 122, 1001-1015.

Lynch, P. and Huang, X.-Y. 1994.

Diabatic initialization using recursive filters.

Tellus 46A, 583-597.

Huang, X.-Y. and Sundqvist, H. 1993.

Initialization of cloud water content and cloud cover for numerical prediction models.

Mon. Wea. Rev. 121, 2719-2726.

Huang, X.-Y. and Lynch, P. 1993.

Diabatic digital filter initialization: Application to the HIRLAM model.

Mon. Wea. Rev. 121, 589-603.

Lynch. P and Huang, X.-Y. 1992.

Initialization of the HIRLAM model using a Digital Filter.

Mon. Wea. Rev. 120,1019-1034.

Kristjansson, J. E. and Huang, X.-Y. 1990.

Implementation of a consistent scheme for condensation and clouds in HIRLAM.

HIRLAM Technical Report No. 7.

Huang, X.-Y. 1990.

The organization of moist convection by internal gravity waves.

Tellus 42A, 270-285.

Huang, X.-Y. 1988.

Nonlinear effects in models of convection.

Ph.D. thesis, University of Stockholm.

Källen, E. and Huang, X.-Y. 1988.

The influence of isolated observations on short range numerical weather forecasts.

Tellus 40A, 324-336.

Huang, X.-Y. 1988.

On the hysteretic behaviour of moist convection.

Tellus 40A, 237- 247.

Källen, E. and Huang, X.-Y. 1987.

A simple model for large-scale thermohaline convection.

Dyn. Atmos. Oceans, 11, 153-173.

Huang, X.-Y. and Källen, E. 1986.

A low-order model for moist convection.

Tellus 38A, 381-396.

Huang, X.-Y. and Källen, E. 1986.

Comments on “A note on CISK in polar air masses”.

Tellus 38A, 378-379.